Frequently ask question What is “totally drug resistant “tuberculosis (TDR-TB) by WHO

Frequently ask question What is “totally drug resistant “tuberculosis (TDR-TB)  by  WHO

In 2006, the first reports of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), an even more severe form of drug resistant TB than multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), began to appear. [1,2] MDR-TB is defined as resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, with or without resistance to other first-line drugs (FLD). XDR-TB is defined as resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, and to any fluoroquinolone, and to any of the three second-line injectables (amikacin, capreomycin, and kanamycin). Within a year of the first reports of XDR-TB, isolated cases were reported in Europe that had resistance to all first-line anti-TB drugs (FLD) and second-line anti-TB drugs (SLD) that were tested.[3,4,5] In 2009, a cohort of 15 patients in Iran was reported which were resistant to all anti-TB drugs tested.[6].  The terms “extremely drug resistant” (“XXDR-TB”) and “totally drug-resistant TB” (“TDR-TB”) were given by the respective authors reporting this group of patients. Recently, a further 4 patients from India with “totally drug resistant” tuberculosis (“TDR-TB”) were described [7], with subsequent media reports of a further 8 cases.[8]

1.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with extensive resistance to second-line drugs worldwide. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006; 55: 301-305.
2.World Health Organization (WHO). Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR.TB): recommendations for prevention and control. Weekly Epidemiol Record 2006; 81: 430-432.
3.GB Migliori, R Loddenkemper, F Blasi and MC Raviglione. 125 years after Robert Koch’s discovery of the tubercle bacillus: the new XDR-TB threat. Is “science” enough to tackle the epidemic? Eur Respir J 2007; 29: 423-427.
4.Migliori GB, De Iaco G, Besozzi G, Centis R, Cirillo DM. First tuberculosis cases in Italy resistant to all tested drugs. Euro Surveil. 2007; 12(20): pii=3194.
5.Migliori GB, Ortmann J, Girardi E et al. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, Italy and Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2007;13: 780-782.
6.Velayati AA, Masjedi MR, Farnia P, et al. Emergence of new forms of totally drug-resistant tuberculosis bacilli: super extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis of totally drug-resistant strain in Iran. Chest 2009; 136: 420-425.
7.Zarir F Udwadia, Rohot A Amale, Kanchan K Ajbani, Camilla Rodrigues. Correspondence: Totally Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in India. Clin Infect Dis, published online December 21, 2011 doi:10.1093/cid/cir889
8.Times of India. New deadlier form of TB hits India. Jan 7, 2012.

Source : Link :      2012/1/17

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